The valerian is a polymorph plant and includes several varieties and forms. The rhizome is short and thick, vertically placed, with many little roots sprouting out of it, each up to 15 cm long. While fresh, the underground organs have no aroma, but dried out or stabilized underground organs have a smell that becomes specific and unpleasant.
The drug contains a prescribed quantity of essential oil, the content of which varies depending on the variety and form of the plant, then on the climate conditions, drying, storage, etc.
It also contains terpenoid substances called valepotriates, monoterpene alkaloids, sugars, starch, and tannins.
The tea made of this plant has been known even among ancient peoples and is used as a sedative. The valerian root is used in the making of various Galen preparations, such as tinctura valerianae, used per os in cases of diseases of the nerves, excitement, and insomnia, as it has a soothing effect.
The tea made of dried roots of the valerian has spasmolytic effects, and this is based on the features of the valerian acid.
Due to its sedative effects, the valerian is used to soothe a nervous heart, pectoral angina, alleviate pains in the bladder area, soothe and regulate painful and irregular menstruation, etc.